The history of Las Alpujarras has its peak at the time of Muslim rule and, above all, in the sixteenth
century, when the uprising Moorish village to the Christian troops of
Philip II occurs. The remaining paragraphs are not vital to the current knowledge of the region, but some aspects will be highlighted from prehistory
to the present.
Prehistory. The oldest human remains found in Las Alpujarras belong to the Mesolithic period. The fourth millennium BC Neolithic begins in this region; burials of this time in the Bat Cave, near Albuñol, about 10 km from the coast of Granada found.
Towards a.de C 2.700 (B.C.). a new cultural center, based on the wealth of mining in the eastern limits of Las Alpujarras appears; the most important settlement called Los Millares, in the Sierra de Gador.
In later centuries there is a new cultural center, this time to the west of La Alpujarra. It's called culture Megalftica, centered Antequera and Huelva, which spread throughout Europe. During the third millennium BC, La Alpujarra, enclosed by impassable mountains, take a slower evolution.
The Bronze Age in Spain also begins near La Alpujarra; Al Meria culture Argar, which runs through much of Europe between 1700 and 1400 to develop. C. Also in this millennium in western Andalusia, the powerful and rich state of Tartessos, of whose history there are still significant gaps develops.
In the first millennium BC begins colonization by Oriental peopIes: Greeks, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and on the north, Celts. This period ends with the Roman colonization. None of these people left a large footprint in La Alpujarra, only the Roman colonization on the coast, as in Almuñécar, where important remains of an aqueduct and columbarium are.
With the arrival of the Arabs in 711, are becoming known historical facts about the region. Are stories that show the Alpujarra as independent warriors and prone to banditry. In the tenth century, there was an uprising in the southern Andalusian against the creation of the Caliphate of Córdoba, headed by Omar ben Hafsún. The Alpujarra village took the side of independence, so the Abd-el-Rah man III himself had to cross the Sierra Nevada, reaching Ugíjar and, after several days of ase gave, took the castle Juviles near Cádiar. Read more at: www.juviles.net
At the time of the party kings, from the eleventh century, the rise of the Taifa of Almería occurs due to the silk industry; Las Alpujarras become a producer of silk center. This time gives rise to two important alpujarreños writers and Ibn Omar Ibn Charaf. In the thirteenth century, the Muslim world is reduced to the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. The administrators divided Granada Alpujarra in tahas (large municipalities) and castles are built in each municipality. Until recently the cultivation of mulberry trees and silkworms have been important in the Alpujarras.
From 1487 begins siege to the Christian Kingdom of Granada (about the provinces of Granada, Málaga and Almería), which worsens with dynastic problems between Muley Hacén, El Zagal and Boabdil. Between 1487 and 1488 fall the western and eastern parts of the kingdom. This last part, which was in the hands of El Zagal, was changed by a perpetual feud in Las Alpujarras to the opponent and Hacén Muley Boabdil, but soon was sent to Africa, where he was imprisoned.
On January 2, 1492, Granada Boabdil surrendered and signed the capitulation. He was also granted a fief in Las Alpujarras, residing on the banks of Andarax (about Ugíjar), but, like his uncle, forced him to go to Africa; this occurs in October of 1493, settling in Fez. In preparation Moraima his wife dies, buried, it is believed, in the Castle Valley Lecrín.
By the capitulations of 1492, the Catholic Monarchs granted the Muslim population respect for their beliefs and customs, as well as their properties, but the divisions of lands to the Spanish aristocracy and intransigent policy of Cardinal Cisneros led uprisings, being the most serious occurred in 1500 in Las Alpujarras; this first uprising was suppressed with difficulty. With the reign of Charles V, the relations are smoothed, but Felipe II to the throne renewed intransigence, culminating with the pragmatics of 1567, approving the use of the Arabic language and expression and prohibited uses Moorish beliefs.
In late 1568, the Moorish leaders agree to a general uprising, but the failure of the uprising in the city of Granada will make conflict focus for more than two years in Las Alpujarras, controlling several ports where rebels received support north Africa. In the Valley of Lecrín, 27 December 1568, he was proclaimed king Aben Humeya. The solemn coronation will be held days later in Cádiar, in an olive grove. Aben Humeya, also known as Aben Umayyad, came from an old family related to the Muslim Umayyad. His family had converted to Christianity, which had the name of Fernando de Córdoba and Valor; the beginning of the conflict is when you change your name.
Yet in December 1568 the Moors are strong in the Valley Lecrin, pushing back the Christian troops under the Marquis of Mondejar, until January 10 they pass the bridge and enter Tablate Las Alpujarras. Meanwhile, Aben Farag, deputy Aben Humeya, had made inroads in Lanjaron and in other towns in the western Alpujarra, as in Orgiva. Christian troops, between 10 and 18 January, were subduing the tahas Poqueira Pitres, Juviles and Ugíjar.
Aben Humeya, who prefers the guerrillas started again returning to the West Valley Lecrín and Tablate bridge, so lets cut off the Christian troops. Right now enters combat for the eastern part, as reinforcement, the Marquis of Vélez. Of Mondejar's passed back to the western part but what the Moors entertain at the Rock of Guájares (path Salobreña), which penetrate the Moors back in La Alpujarra.
Aben Humeya, hiding in the Bérchules, Valor and Mecina Bombarón, is caught in ambush in the latter locality, residence of Aben Aboo, cousin and successor after the Moorish leader.
In the first months of 1569 were occurring atrocities by both sides, including 800 deaths of Valor. In April, the Christian takes command D. Juan de Austria, brother of Felipe II. In May, the insurrection opens and reaches the Axarquia, Sierra Bentomiz, Baza and east of Almeria, but will be defeated the last Moorish Malaga (Frigiliana) in June. Between June and July, the Christian troops get wins in La Alpujarra Oriental (Berja Ugíjar, but in August, the Moors retake Padula and other Valley towns Lecrín. Marquis of Mondejar is isolated by D. Juan de Austria.
In October 1569, a conspiracy against Aben Humeya Cádiar occurs. Several reasons were mixed: the ambition of Aben Aboo, Aben confrontation with Turkish troops Humeya, hatred of his wife's family (for killing the Moorish king several of its members) and even mobile jealousy. Aben Humeya rested on Laujar Andarax (east of Ugijar). He was killed by his cousin, who succeeded him. He was buried there, but Don Juan of Austria, to end the conflict, his remains moved to Guadix. The second well Moorish king begins his reign by defeating Christian in Orgiva but to battle the brother of Philip II, has to retreat to the heights of the mountains. At present, the Moors of Granada and La Vega had already been expelled to other provinces. In October 1570, he was only the Moorish leader with 300 men. At the end is also killed and brought to Granada.
After being stifled rebellion proceed to the expulsion of the Moors survivors, which have been calculated at about 80,000; destination was Western Andalusia and Castilla La Mancha. A few thousands could remain until the general expulsion from the country in 1610 under the reign of Philip III. Much of the territory of Granada was devastated. There was a restocking of peasants from Galicia, León, Asturias and Castilla; total 12,542 families repopulated 270 places, forever lost about 130 points. From these dates will produce a general downturn in the region and a strong historical oblivion; can only review its participation last you the Spanish Civil War.
Following the lifting of the July 18, 1936, Granada, Malaga and Almeria coast came under the control of the government of the Republic as well as the eastern and central part of La Alpujarra. The rebels, who had the city of Granada in his power not ventured beyond Lanjaron. Orgiva was evacuated and was between two lines almost to the end of the war. Wealthy families fled to the capital and in the interior of the region atrocities occurred on both sides, more on personal grudges that true political motives.